Naga Insurgency – IAS Synopsis

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13 civilians were killed in Mon district of Nagaland during a counter-insurgency operation which has led to tensions in Nagaland again.



  • Naga Hills were annexed into British India in 1881.
  • Naga Club formed in 1918 which aroused Naga Nationalism.
  • Under Angami Zapu Phizo, Naga National Council(NNC) was formed and armed insurrection began.
  • Nagaland got statehood post independence in 1963.
  • Shillong Accord was signed in 1975 to reduce the tensions and the insurgent groups.
  • Shillong Accord was strongly opposed by Phizo, Isak Swu and Muivah. This led to the formation of National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN) in 1980.
  • Maoist ideology was adopted by NSCN and emerged as a dangerous insurgent group.
  • In 1988, NSCN split into NSCN(IM) IM stands for Isak Muivah group and NSCN(K) [led by S.S. Khaplang (Myanmar-based)].


The NSCN was formed in 1980 but split into two groups in 1988, one led by the Myanmar-based S.S. Khaplang and the other by Isak Chishi Swu of Nagaland and Thuingaleng Muivah of Manipur that called itself NSCN (I-M).



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